Bill of Rights
Back Home Up Next


9 Bill of Rights

9.1 Applicability

These rights are binding on all confederate institutions at all times, and are otherwise binding within the powers of the Confederation as defined in chapter 3 of this Cons­titution.

9.2 Non-discrimination

The rights of the citizens cannot be denied or abridged on account of nationality or ethnic origin, political or religious beliefs, race, color or sex.

9.3 Voting age

The right of a citizen, being eighteen years of age, to vote or be elected to an office cannot be denied or abridged.

9.4 Ex post facto law

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

9.5 Religious freedom

No official religion may be established, nor may peaceful religious activities be restricted.

9.6 Freedom of speech

9.6.1       The freedom of a) speech and expression, and b) the press and other media may not be restricted.

9.6.2       Nor may the ownership of media or the transfer of electromagnetic frequency rights or other access rights or technical means of media production and distribution be restricted.

9.7 Right of assembly and association

The right of the people to peaceably assemble or associate or not to assemble or associate cannot be denied or abridged.

9.8 Habeas corpus

The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended.

9.9 Privacy, searches, seizures and interceptions

9.9.1       Everyone has the right of peaceful privacy, which includes the freedom from unreasonable searches, seizures and interceptions of his person, papers, information stored or given in confidence, home, property, communications and effects of any kind, whether by government or by private parties, and independent of where the search, interception or seizure takes place.

9.9.2       No warrants shall issue, but according to law, upon probable cause and particularly describing the place to be searched or items to be intercepted or seized and the mode of interception and seizure.

9.9.3       Each year statistics on the number of warrants issued, and the number of searches resulting in the interception or seizure of item or items described by the warrant shall be published.

9.9.4       Compensation is payable to those affected by unsuccessful or unlawful searches, seizures and interceptions according to the inconveniences endured.

9.10 Due process

9.10.1  No person shall twice be put in jeopardy of life or limb for the same offense, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.

9.10.2  Anyone deprived of life, liberty or property without later conviction or convicted, but later found innocent, shall have just compensation.

9.11 Criminal prosecutions

9.11.1  In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall: be presumed innocent until proven guilty be entitled to a speedy and public trial by an impartial court be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation have access to all information presented to the court have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor have the assistance of counsel for his defense be entitled to not incriminate himself have the right of appeal

9.11.2  The accused shall be informed of applicable rights prior to questioning.

9.11.3  Illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible.

9.11.4  On the accused's application, the court may limit media coverage prior to conviction.

9.12 Jury

The trial of all crimes shall be by jury, with such exceptions as may be determined by law for the Supreme Court.

9.13 Excessive bail

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines or damages imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

9.14 Taking of property

9.14.1  Private property, including rights established by contract and intangible property, shall not be taken, regulated or encumbered for public use without full compensation.

9.14.2  The previous subsection does not prevent regulations whose sole purpose is a) the return of monopoly profits to the customers from whom the profits were derived or b) to prevent the accumulation of monopoly profits by enhancing competition.

9.15 Speedy decisions

9.15.1  Whenever a citizen requests a permit, a speedy trial or any other action or decision of any confederate or state institution, court, agency or officer, such requested action or decision shall be carried out within 6 months of the time such action was desired or required or such shorter time as is reasonable or such longer time as is reasonable and established by law.

9.15.2  If an action is non-timely the requestor or those for whom the delay has consequences, shall have full compensation for any lost opportunities or profits and/or expenses and inconveniences.

9.15.3  In criminal cases the accused shall be aquitted and have full compensation.

9.16 Equal protection

9.16.1  The Confederation and its officers may sue and be sued and shall enjoy no privileges or immunities not accorded other citizens.

9.16.2  All citizens are equal before the law and have the equal protection of the laws.

9.17 Monopolies

9.17.1  The Confederation may not erect or protect monopolies or the acquisition of monopoly profits.

9.17.2  The previous subsection does not prevent the establishment of intellectual property rights.

9.18 Rights retained by the people

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

9.19 Freedom of information

To be added.

Revised: 2004-07-02